When Julius II was elected pope, he had no intention of having his residence established in the apartments where the Borgia family had confabulated their dreadful affairs.
By deciding to move one floor above, he ordered several painters to take care of the fresco decorations. Raphael started with the world-famous school of Athens, where the most significant philosophers of ancient times move within an imposing Renaissance architecture.
With this first work, Raphael gained immediate success, became in charge of the rest of the decorations, while the other painters were fired.
Together with his team, he was commissioned to do the artwork in the audience room, in the library, and the music room of the Pope.
The frescoes took almost 20 years to complete was finally finished sometime after his death in 1520 by his young assistants, and undoubtedly outshined the apartments of his predecessor.